1964

1964 Inhaltsverzeichnis

Januar: Jürgen Pohl, deutscher Politiker; Januar: Hannes Anton, österreichischer Politiker, Unternehmer und Manager; Januar: Pongruangrong Arisman. Diese Kategorie enthält Artikel, die wichtige Themen und Ereignisse behandeln, welche mit dem Jahr in Zusammenhang stehen. Die einzelnen Themen. Sowjet-Präsident Chruschtschow wird überraschend abgesetzt. In den USA geht die Zeit der Rassentrennung zu Ende. Ein Zwischenfall im. Jahreschronik Auschwitzprozess Frankfurt, Lokaltermin in Auschwitz. Objektinfo. JAN; FEB; MÄR; APR; MAI; JUN; JUL; AUG; SEP; OKT; NOV; DEZ. Zeitklicks führt Kinder durch die deutsche Geschichte im Jahrhundert, durch Kaiserzeit, Weimarer Republik, Nationalsozialismus, Bundesrepublik und DDR.

1964

Diese Kategorie enthält Artikel, die wichtige Themen und Ereignisse behandeln, welche mit dem Jahr in Zusammenhang stehen. Die einzelnen Themen. Jahreschronik Auschwitzprozess Frankfurt, Lokaltermin in Auschwitz. Objektinfo. JAN; FEB; MÄR; APR; MAI; JUN; JUL; AUG; SEP; OKT; NOV; DEZ. Zeitklicks führt Kinder durch die deutsche Geschichte im Jahrhundert, durch Kaiserzeit, Weimarer Republik, Nationalsozialismus, Bundesrepublik und DDR. Die Labour-Party erringt gravity falls netflix knappe Mehrheit im Unterhaus. Jean Paul Sartre erhält den Heute backstreet boysden er jedoch aus "persönlichen https://jankallman-ingbyra.se/hd-serien-stream/rtl-plus-2019.php objektiven Gründen" ablehnt. Verwandte Multimediainhalte: Jahresrückblick - Serien drake stream josh and Entscheidungen in der Bundesrepublik. Frankreich hatte keinen seiner Verbündeten konsultiert. Heinrich Lübke wird in Berlin erneut zum Bundespräsidenten gewählt. Gewerkschaften und Arbeitgeber gehen aufeinander zu. Frankreich bevorzugt den Alleingang, der im Aufbau eigenen Atomstreitmacht gipfelt. Er spricht als Gastredner in einem ökumenischen Gottesdienst in der Ost-Berliner Marienkirche und in einem kurzfristig angesetzten Gottesdienst in der Sophienkirche. Verwandte Multimediainhalte: Jahresrückblick - Christliche Versammlungen weltweit. Chruschtschow gestürzt. Verwandte Multimediainhalte: Jahresrückblick https://jankallman-ingbyra.se/serien-stream-app-android/basic-instincts.php Krieg in Südvietnam. Am frühen Morgen des

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November wird Lyndon B. Nominierung der letzten gesamtdeutschen Olympiamannschaft für die Olympischen Spiele in Innsbruck und Tokyo. Paul VI. Verwandte Multimediainhalte: Jahresrückblick - Sportliche Höchstleistungen. Verwandte Multimediainhalte: Jahresrückblick - Click at this page Wettrüsten. Zum zwanzigsten Mal jährt sich das bedeutendste Datum des Widerstandes gegen Hitler, der Die Gewerkschaften sorgen für kräftige Lohnerhöhungen lupita nyongo den verschiedenen Branchen. Verwandte Multimediainhalte: Jahresrückblick - Sturz Chruschtschows. Beuys verharrt acht Stunden lang liegend auf dem Boden. Auch die Abrüstungskonferenz in Genf kann das Wettrüsten der Staaten nicht einschränken. Dieser Artikel wurde ausgedruckt unter der Adresse: www. Die beiden sind bad boys jungs stream jüngste Königspaar der Welt. August wird bestätigt. Verwandte Multimediainhalte: Jahresrückblick - Sportliche Höchstleistungen.

The House passed the bill on Feb. It moved to the Senate on Feb. The committee was chaired by civil rights opponent James Eastland of Mississippi.

More: Fact check: Civil rights-era images weren't intentionally made black and white. Johnson also asked for support from Sen.

Richard Russell Jr. After senators voted to end the debate, the bill passed on June 19, According to the Senate site, the continuous debate lasted 60 days.

A June 20, , New York Daily News article about the passage said 46 Democrats and 27 Republicans were in favor of the bill, while 21 Democrats, all from Southern or border states, opposed it along with six Republicans.

By , Purdum said, McCulloch was a ranking member of the House Judiciary Committee who asked the Kennedy administration to support the bill, saying he had support from the House Republican leaders.

Once the bill reached the Senate, Purdum described Southern Democrats as leading filibuster efforts, including Sens. It is true that the Democrats hold the record for the longest filibuster.

But there are a couple of aspects of the exact claim that are false or misleading. It wasn't 75 days long; it lasted only 60 days.

And there should be a distinction made in exactly who was blocking the bill. Thank you for supporting our journalism. You can subscribe to our print edition, ad-free app or electronic newspaper replica here.

By the time of the winter recess, 50 signatures were still needed. After the return of Congress from its winter recess, however, it was apparent that public opinion in the North favored the bill and that the petition would acquire the necessary signatures.

To avert the humiliation of a successful discharge petition, Chairman Smith relented and allowed the bill to pass through the Rules Committee.

Lobbying support for the Civil Rights Act was coordinated by the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights , a coalition of 70 liberal and labor organizations.

The principal lobbyists for the Leadership Conference were civil rights lawyer Joseph L. Rauh Jr. Johnson, who wanted the bill passed as soon as possible, ensured that the bill would be quickly considered by the Senate.

Eastland , Democrat from Mississippi. Given Eastland's firm opposition, it seemed impossible that the bill would reach the Senate floor.

Senate Majority Leader Mike Mansfield took a novel approach to prevent the bill from being relegated to Judiciary Committee limbo.

Having initially waived a second reading of the bill, which would have led to it being immediately referred to Judiciary, Mansfield gave the bill a second reading on February 26, , and then proposed, in the absence of precedent for instances when a second reading did not immediately follow the first, that the bill bypass the Judiciary Committee and immediately be sent to the Senate floor for debate.

Strong opposition to the bill also came from Senator Strom Thurmond D-SC : "This so-called Civil Rights Proposals, which the President has sent to Capitol Hill for enactment into law, are unconstitutional, unnecessary, unwise and extend beyond the realm of reason.

This is the worst civil-rights package ever presented to the Congress and is reminiscent of the Reconstruction proposals and actions of the radical Republican Congress.

The compromise bill was weaker than the House version in regard to government power to regulate the conduct of private business, but it was not so weak as to cause the House to reconsider the legislation.

Until then, the measure had occupied the Senate for 60 working days, including six Saturdays. A day earlier, Democratic Whip Hubert Humphrey of Minnesota, the bill's manager, concluded he had the 67 votes required at that time to end the debate and end the filibuster.

With six wavering senators providing a four-vote victory margin, the final tally stood at 71 to Never in history had the Senate been able to muster enough votes to cut off a filibuster on a civil rights bill.

And only once in the 37 years since had it agreed to cloture for any measure. Engle, suffering from terminal brain cancer , was unable to speak; when his name was called, he pointed to his left eye, signifying his affirmative vote.

Engle died seven weeks later. On June 19, the substitute compromise bill passed the Senate by a vote of 73—27, and quickly passed through the House—Senate conference committee , which adopted the Senate version of the bill.

The conference bill was passed by both houses of Congress, and was signed into law by President Johnson on July 2, The original House version: [25].

Cloture in the Senate: [26]. The Senate version: [25]. The Senate version, voted on by the House: [25]. Note: "Southern", as used here, refers to members of Congress from the eleven states that had made up the Confederate States of America in the American Civil War.

The House of Representatives: [27]. The Senate: [27]. Just one year earlier, the same Congress had passed the Equal Pay Act of , which prohibited wage differentials based on sex.

Smith , a powerful Virginia Democrat who chaired the House Rules Committee and who strongly opposed the legislation.

Smith's amendment was passed by a teller vote of to Historians debate Smith's motivation, whether it was a cynical attempt to defeat the bill by someone opposed to civil rights both for blacks and women, or an attempt to support their rights by broadening the bill to include women.

Historians speculate that Smith was trying to embarrass northern Democrats who opposed civil rights for women because the clause was opposed by labor unions.

Representative Carl Elliott of Alabama later claimed, "Smith didn't give a damn about women's rights Smith asserted that he was not joking; he sincerely supported the amendment and, indeed, along with Rep.

Martha Griffiths , [36] he was the chief spokesperson for the amendment. He for decades had been close to the National Woman's Party and its leader Alice Paul , who was also the leader in winning the right to vote for women in , the author of the first Equal Rights Amendment, and a chief supporter of equal rights proposals since then.

She and other feminists had worked with Smith since trying to find a way to include sex as a protected civil rights category.

Now was the moment. Furthermore, she argued that the laws "protecting" women from unpleasant jobs were actually designed to enable men to monopolize those jobs, and that was unfair to women who were not allowed to try out for those jobs.

The final law passed with the votes of Republicans and Northern Democrats. Vinson , "The prohibition against discrimination based on sex was added to Title VII at the last minute on the floor of the House of Representatives One of the most damaging arguments by the bill's opponents was that once passed, the bill would require forced busing to achieve certain racial quotas in schools.

In June , the U. Supreme Court ruled in three cases Bostock v. Clayton County , Altitude Express, Inc. Zarda , and R. Harris Funeral Homes Inc.

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission that the Civil Rights Act's Title VII provisions barring employers from discriminating on the basis of sex also bar employers from discriminating on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity.

The bill divided and engendered a long-term change in the demographic support of both parties. President Johnson realized that supporting this bill would risk losing the South's overwhelming support of the Democratic Party.

Johnson told Kennedy aide Ted Sorensen that "I know the risks are great and we might lose the South, but those sorts of states may be lost anyway.

The South, which had five states swing Republican in , became a stronghold of the Republican Party by the s.

Although majorities in both parties voted for the bill, there were notable exceptions. Though he opposed forced segregation, [47] Republican Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona voted against the bill, remarking, "You can't legislate morality.

He stated that the reason for his opposition to the bill was Title II, which in his opinion violated individual liberty and states' rights.

Democrats and Republicans from the Southern states opposed the bill and led an unsuccessful day filibuster, including Senators Albert Gore, Sr.

D-TN and J. There were white business owners who claimed that Congress did not have the constitutional authority to ban segregation in public accommodations.

For example, Moreton Rolleston, the owner of a motel in Atlanta, Georgia, said he should not be forced to serve black travelers, saying, "the fundamental question [ Resistance to the public accommodation clause continued for years on the ground, especially in the South.

The full text of the Act is available online. This title barred unequal application of voter registration requirements. Title I did not eliminate literacy tests , which acted as one barrier for black voters, other racial minorities, and poor whites in the South or address economic retaliation, police repression, or physical violence against nonwhite voters.

While the Act did require that voting rules and procedures be applied equally to all races, it did not abolish the concept of voter "qualification".

It accepted the idea that citizens do not have an automatic right to vote but would have to meet standards beyond citizenship. Outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, or national origin in hotels, motels, restaurants, theaters, and all other public accommodations engaged in interstate commerce; exempted private clubs without defining the term "private".

Prohibited state and municipal governments from denying access to public facilities on grounds of race, color, religion, or national origin.

Enforced the desegregation of public schools and authorized the U. Attorney General to file suits to enforce said act.

Expanded the Civil Rights Commission established by the earlier Civil Rights Act of with additional powers, rules and procedures.

Prevents discrimination by programs and activities that receive federal funds. If a recipient of federal funds is found in violation of Title VI, that recipient may lose its federal funding.

This title declares it to be the policy of the United States that discrimination on the ground of race, color, or national origin shall not occur in connection with programs and activities receiving Federal financial assistance and authorizes and directs the appropriate Federal departments and agencies to take action to carry out this policy.

This title is not intended to apply to foreign assistance programs. Section directs each Federal agency administering a program of Federal financial assistance by way of grant, contract, or loan to take action pursuant to rule, regulation, or order of general applicability to effectuate the principle of section in a manner consistent with the achievement of the objectives of the statute authorizing the assistance.

In seeking the effect compliance with its requirements imposed under this section, an agency is authorized to terminate or to refuse to grant or to continue assistance under a program to any recipient as to whom there has been an express finding pursuant to a hearing of a failure to comply with the requirements under that program, and it may also employ any other means authorized by law.

However, each agency is directed first to seek compliance with its requirements by voluntary means. Section provides that any agency action taken pursuant to section shall be subject to such judicial review as would be available for similar actions by that agency on other grounds.

The section also states explicitly that in the latter situation such agency action shall not be deemed committed to unreviewable agency discretion within the meaning of section The purpose of this provision is to obviate the possible argument that although section provides for review in accordance with section 10, section 10 itself has an exception for action "committed to agency discretion," which might otherwise be carried over into section It is not the purpose of this provision of section , however, otherwise to alter the scope of judicial review as presently provided in section 10 e of the Administrative Procedure Act.

December 11, Executive order on Combating Anti-Semitism states: "While Title VI does not cover discrimination based on religion, individuals who face discrimination on the basis of race, color, or national origin do not lose protection under Title VI for also being a member of a group that shares common religious practices.

It shall be the policy of the executive branch to enforce Title VI against prohibited forms of discrimination rooted in anti-Semitism as vigorously as against all other forms of discrimination prohibited by Title VI.

Title VII applies to and covers an employer "who has fifteen 15 or more employees for each working day in each of twenty or more calendar weeks in the current or preceding calendar year" as written in the Definitions section under 42 U.

Title VII also prohibits discrimination against an individual because of his or her association with another individual of a particular race, color, religion, sex, or national origin, such as by an interracial marriage.

In very narrowly defined situations, an employer is permitted to discriminate on the basis of a protected trait where the trait is a bona fide occupational qualification BFOQ reasonably necessary to the normal operation of that particular business or enterprise.

To prove the bona fide occupational qualifications defense, an employer must prove three elements: a direct relationship between the protected trait and the ability to perform the duties of the job, the BFOQ relates to the "essence" or "central mission of the employer's business", and there is no less-restrictive or reasonable alternative United Automobile Workers v.

Johnson Controls, Inc. The bona fide occupational qualification exception is an extremely narrow exception to the general prohibition of discrimination based on protected traits Dothard v.

Rawlinson , U. An employer or customer's preference for an individual of a particular religion is not sufficient to establish a Bona Fide Occupational Qualification Equal Employment Opportunity Commission v.

Kamehameha School—Bishop Estate , F. Title VII allows for any employer, labor organization, joint labor-management committee, or employment agency to bypass the "unlawful employment practice" for any person involved with the Communist Party of the United States or of any other organization required to register as a Communist-action or Communist-front organization by final order of the Subversive Activities Control Board pursuant to the Subversive Activities Control Act of Where a state law is contradicted by a federal law, it is overridden.

Title VII also provides that an individual can bring a private lawsuit. An individual must file a complaint of discrimination with the EEOC within days of learning of the discrimination or the individual may lose the right to file a lawsuit.

Applicability of Title VII to certain cases of discrimination has been established by case law from the Supreme Court to fit within the definition of "race, color, religion, sex, or national origin" as defined by law:.

The decision held that discrimination on the basis of gender identity qualified as discrimination on the basis of sex whether the discrimination was due to sex stereotyping, discomfort with the fact of an individual's transition, or discrimination due to a perceived change in the individual's sex.

DoJ had already stopped opposing claims of discrimination brought by federal transgender employees.

Attorney General Sessions stated as a matter of law, "Title VII does not prohibit discrimination based on gender identity per se.

On June 15, , the Supreme Court ruled that the language of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, which provides employment protections against discrimination on the basis of sex, also applies to discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity.

Required compilation of voter-registration and voting data in geographic areas specified by the Commission on Civil Rights. Title IX made it easier to move civil rights cases from state courts to federal court.

This was of crucial importance to civil rights activists [ who? Established the Community Relations Service , tasked with assisting in community disputes involving claims of discrimination.

Between and , Title VII lacked any strong enforcement provisions. Instead, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission was authorized only to investigate external claims of discrimination.

The EEOC documented the nature and magnitude of discriminatory employment practices, the first study of this kind done.

The EEOC now played a major role in guiding judicial interpretations of civil rights legislation. The commission was also permitted for the first time to define "discrimination," a term excluded from the Act.

After the Civil Rights Act of was passed, the Supreme Court upheld the law's application to the private sector, on the grounds that Congress has the power to regulate commerce between the States.

The landmark case Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States established the constitutionality of the law, but it did not settle all of the legal questions surrounding the law.

In Phillips v. Martin Marietta Corp. Pittsburgh Commission on Human Relations , the United States Supreme Court decided that printing separate job listings for men and women was illegal, which ended that practice among the country's newspapers.

The United States Civil Service Commission ended the practice among federal jobs which designated them "women only" or "men only.

In in the case Lau v. Nichols , the Supreme Court ruled that the San Francisco school district was violating non-English speaking students' rights under the act by placing them in regular classes rather than providing some sort of accommodation for them.

In , the U. District Court for the Central District of California struck down state minimum height requirements for police officers as violating the Act; women usually could not meet these requirements.

On April 4, , in the case Hively v. On June 15, , in the case Bostock v. In , a federal civil rights agency warned a Phoenix, Arizona , school that its end-of-year father-son and mother-daughter baseball games were illegal according to the Civil Rights Act.

The Americans with Disabilities Act of —which has been called "the most important piece of federal legislation since the Civil Rights Act of "—was influenced both by the structure and substance of the previous Civil Rights Act of The act was arguably of equal importance, and "draws substantially from the structure of that landmark legislation [Civil Rights Act of ]".

The Americans with Disabilities Act paralleled its landmark predecessor structurally, drawing upon many of the same titles and statutes.

Similarly, Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act, "which proscribes discrimination on the basis of disability in public accommodations, tracks Title II of the Act while expanding upon the list of public accommodations covered.

The Act also influenced later civil rights legislation, such as the Voting Rights Act of and the Civil Rights Act of , aiding not only African Americans, but also women.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 27 June Landmark U. For broader coverage of this topic, see Civil Rights Act.

Introduced in the House as H. Johnson on July 2, Heart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. United States Katzenbach v.

McClung United States v. Johnson Newman v. Piggie Park Enterprises, Inc. Holmes County Board of Education Griggs v.

Duke Power Co. Green Lau v. Nichols Christiansburg Garment Co. Hopkins Alexander v. White Ledbetter v.

Nassar Equal Employment Opportunity Commission v. Brennan Bostock v. Zarda R. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Play media.

Public statement by Lyndon B. Johnson of July 2, about the Civil Rights Act of See also: Realigning election. For the prohibition of sex discrimination in federally funded education programs and activities, see Title IX of the Education Amendments Act of Katzenbach v.

McClung Griggs v. Davis Wards Cove Packing Co. Atonio Ricci v. DeStefano See Bostock v. Clayton County , and also see below for more details.

Zarda ; and R. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Retrieved July 28, The New York Times. Retrieved June 15, John F.

Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. June 11,

Die Westmächte und die Bundesrepublik lehnen diese "Dreistaatentheorie" ab. Dies stellt einen Affront gegen Washington dar. In Bonn konstituiert sich der Sachverständigenrat click to see more Begutachtung der gesamtwirtschaftlichen Entwicklung in der Bundesrepublik. November wird Lyndon B. In der Sowjetunion wird Präsident Chruschtschow überraschend abgesetzt.

1964 Video

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Hair Comedy Drama Musical. The House passed the bill on Feb. It moved to the Senate on Feb. The committee was chaired by civil rights opponent James Eastland of Mississippi.

More: Fact check: Civil rights-era images weren't intentionally made black and white. Johnson also asked for support from Sen.

Richard Russell Jr. After senators voted to end the debate, the bill passed on June 19, According to the Senate site, the continuous debate lasted 60 days.

A June 20, , New York Daily News article about the passage said 46 Democrats and 27 Republicans were in favor of the bill, while 21 Democrats, all from Southern or border states, opposed it along with six Republicans.

By , Purdum said, McCulloch was a ranking member of the House Judiciary Committee who asked the Kennedy administration to support the bill, saying he had support from the House Republican leaders.

Once the bill reached the Senate, Purdum described Southern Democrats as leading filibuster efforts, including Sens.

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1964

1964 Video

Arthur C Clarke predicts the internet in 1964

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